The Three Lions fell behind on eight minutes when Thalles burst into the box and the ball eventually fell for Alisson to fire home.
Woodrow was then brought on for Brighton & Hove Albion midfielder Jake Forster-Caskey on 51 minutes, but Brazil moved 2-0 ahead when Lucas Silva struck low past Jack Butland.
England made it interesting with nine minutes to go though, as Southampton’s James Ward-Prowse pulled a goal back through a lovely free-kick, curled into the top corner.
Gareth Southgate’s side had beaten Qatar 3-0 in their first match on Thursday as Woodrow came on for the final half hour, replacing West Bromwich Albion’s Saido Berahino.
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England now face South Korea on Wednesday and Colombia on Friday.